Resources and Bibliography

Resources for parents, caregivers, and educators

Answers 4 Families

Center for Music Learning

Munroe Meyer Institute

Nebraska Respite Network


Ollie Webb Center (in Omaha, NE)

PTI Nebraska

A Special Sitter

**A company specializing in respite care.

Med-Right Home Modifications


American Music Therapy Association:

Certification Board for Music Therapists:

Center for Music Therapy in End of Life Care:

West Music

For instruments of all kinds, including adapted instruments:

Research in a number of different populations

Drums and percussion:

Publishers of music therapy resources:

Letter From the US Dept of Ed, clarifying MT as a related service

Black Music History Library


Special Education

    Field, T., Martinez, A., Nawrocki, T., Pickens, J., Fox N. A., & Schanberg, S. (1998). Music shifts frontal EEG in depressed adolescents. Adolescence, 33(129), 109–116.

    Krakouer, L., Houghton, S., Douglas, G., & West, J. (2001). The efficacy of music therapy in effecting behaviour change in persons with Cerebral Palsy. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 6, 29–37.

    Montello, L. M., & Coons, E. E. (1998). Effect of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 49–67.

    Sahler, O. J., et al. Music therapy during botulinum injections. 2002–2006. Identifier: NCT00178217. Report forthcoming.

    Wigram, T. (2002). Indications in music therapy. British Journal of Music Therapy, 16(1), 11–28.

    Standley, J. M. (1996). A meta-analysis on the effects of music as reinforcement for education/therapy objectives. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44(2), 105–133.

    Rainey Perry, M. M. (2003). Relating improvisational music therapy with severely and multiply disabled children to communication development. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(3), 227–246.

     Kvam, M. H. (1997). The effect of vibroacoustic therapy. Physiotherapy, 83(6), 290–295.     Thaut, M. H., Hurt, C. P., Dragan, D., & McIntosh, G. C. (1998).

    Standley, J. M., & J. E. Hughes. (1996). Documenting developmentally appropriate objectives and benefits of a music therapy program for early intervention: A behavioral analysis. Music Therapy Perspectives, 14(2), 87–94.

    Colwell, C. M. (1994). Therapeutic applications of music in the whole language kindergarten. Journal of Music Therapy, 31(4), 238–247.

    Register, D. (2001). The effects of an early intervention music curriculum on pre-reading/ writing. Journal of Music Therapy, 38(3), 239–248.

    Standley, J., & Hughes, J. (1997). Evaluation of an early intervention music curriculum for enhancing pre-reading/writing skills. Music Therapy Perspectives, 15, 79–86.

    Braithwaite, M., & J. Sigafoos (1998). Effects of social versus musical antecedents on communication responsiveness in five children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Music Therapy, 35(2), 88–104.

    Claussen, D., & Thaut, M. (1997). Music as a mnemonic device for children with learning disabilities. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, 5, 55–66.

    Peterson, D. A., Thaut, M. H., Sena, K. M., O’Shea, G., & McIntosh, G. C. (2005). Music modulates neural network synchronizations in verbal learning. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience. 192.20.

    Thaut, M. H., Peterson, D. A., & McIntosh, G. C. (2005). Temporal entrainment of cognitive function: Musical mnemonics induce brain plasticity and oscillatory synchrony in neural networks underlying memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 243–254.

    Wolfe, D., & Hom, C. (1993). Use of melodies as structural prompts for learning and retention of sequential verbal information by preschool students. Journal of Music Therapy, 30(2), 100–118.

    Bryan, T., Sullivan-Burstein, K., & Mathur, S. (1998). The influence of affect on social- information processing. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(5), 418–426.

    Ulfarsdottir, L., & Erwin, P. (1999). The influence of music on social cognitive skills. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 26(2), 81–84.

    Berel, M. (1993). Music therapy and music education for the handicapped. St. Louis, MO: MMB Music.

    Birdenshaw-Fleming, L. (1993). Music for all. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson.

    Bixler, J. W. (1968). Music therapy practices for the child with cerebral palsy. In E. T. Gaston, (Ed.), Music therapy. New York: Macmillan.

    Herman, F. (1985). Music therapy for the young child with cerebral palsy who uses Blissymbolics. Music Therapy, 5, 28–36.

    Herron, C. J. (1975). Some effects of instrumental music training on cerebral palsied children. Journal of Music Therapy, 7, 55–58.

    Ford, S. C. (1984). Music therapy for cerebral palsied children. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1, 8–13.

    James, M. R. (1986). Neurophysical treatment of cerebral palsy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 3, 5–8.

    Palmer, M. F., & Zerbe, L. E. (1954). Control of athetotic tremors by sound control. In E. Podolsky (Ed.), Music therapy. New York: Philosophical Library.

    Rudenberg, M. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped children: Orthopedically handicapped. Washington, DC: National Association for Music Therapy.

    Scartelli, J. P. (1982). The effect of sedative music on electromyography biofeedback assisted relaxation training of spastic cerebral palsied adults. Journal of Music Therapy. 19, 210–218.

    Schnieder, E. H. (1968). Music therapy for the cerebral palsied. In E. T. Gaston (Ed.), Music therapy. New York: Macmillan.

    Thaut, M. H. (1985). The use of auditory rhythm and rhythmic speech to aid temporal muscular control in children with gross motor dysfunction. Journal of Music Therapy, 22, 108–128.

    Thaut, M. H., DeMartin, M., & Sanes, J. N. (2005). Brain networks for integrative rhythm formation during symmetric and asymmetric acoustically paced movements. Experimental Brain Research.

    Walmsley, R. P., Crichton, L., & Droog, D. (1981). Music as a feedback mechanism for teaching head control to severely handicapped children: A pilot study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 23(6), 739–746.

    Wigram, T. (1997). The effect of vibro acoustic therapy on multiply handicapped adults with high muscle tone and spasticity. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books.

    Wolfe, D. E. (1980). The effect of automated interrupted music on head positioning of cerebral palsied individuals. Journal of Music Therapy, 17, 184–206.


Annotated Bibliography of Research: 1992 - 2003

Reviews of Music Therapy in Medical Settings.

    Standley, J.M. (2000). Music research in medical treatment. In D. Smith (Ed.) Effectiveness of Music Therapy Procedures: Documentation of Research and Clinical Practice. American Music Therapy Association: Silver Spring, MD.

    Standley, J.M. (1992). Meta analysis of research in music and medical treatment. Effect size as a basis for comparisons across multiple dependent and independent variables. In R. Spintge and R. Droh (Eds). Music Medicine, St Louis: MMB.

Music Therapy reduces pain.

    Colwell, C. (1997). Music as distraction and relaxation to reduce chronic pain and narcotic ingestion: A case study. Music Therapy Perspectives, 15, 24-31.

Edwards, J. (1998). Music therapy for children with severe burn injury. Music Therapy Perspectives, 16, 21-26.

    Fratianne R.B, Presner, J.D., Houston, M.J., Super, D.M., Yowler, C.J.& Standley, J.M. (2001). The effect of music – based imagery and musical alternate engagement on the burn debridement process. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation. 22(1): 47-53

    Good, M., Anderson, G.C., Stanton-Hicks, M., Grass, J.A. & Makil, M. (2002). Relaxation and music reduce pain after gynecologic surgery. Pain Management Nursing, 3 (2): 61-70.

    Loewy, J. (1997). Music therapy pediatric pain management: Assessing and attending to the sounds of hurt, fear and anxiety. In J. Loewy (Ed.), Music Therapy and Pediatric Pain, (pp. 45-56). Jeffrey Books.

Music Therapy reduces physiological indicators of anxiety and reduces need for sedation and analgesia, increases completion rate, and shortens examination time during colonoscopy.

    Smolon, D., Topp, R. & Singer, L. (2002). The effect of self-selected music during colonoscopy on anxiety, heart, rate, and blood pressure. Applied Nursing Research. 15 (3): 126-36.

    Schiemann, U., Gross, M., Reuter, R. & Kellner, H. (2002). Improved procedure of colonoscopy under accompanying music therapy. European Journal of Medical Research. 7 (3): 131-4.

Music Therapy reduces physiological indicators of pre-operative stress.

    Miluk-Kolasa, B., Matejek, M. & Stupnicki R. (1996). The effects of music listening on changes in selected physiological parameters in adult pre-surgical patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 208–218.

    Robb, S.L., Nichols R.J., Rutan R.L. & Bishop B.L. (1995). The effects of music assisted relaxation on preoperative anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy, 32, 2–21.

Music Therapy reduces cortisol in healthy adults.

    McKinney, C.H., Antoni, M.H., Kumar, M., Tims, F.C. & McCabe, P.M. (1997). Effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) Therapy on mood and cortisol in healthy adults. Health Psychology 16 (4). 390–400.

Music Therapy reduces physiological and psychological indicators of distress in post– operative cardiac patients.

    Cadigan, M.E., Caruso, N.A., Halderman, S.M., McNamara, M.E., Noyes, D.A., Spadafora, M.A. & Carrol, D.L. (2001). The effect of music on cardiac patients on bed rest. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing. 16 (1): 5-13.

Engaging in group music therapy and listening to music reduces anxiety associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

    Cai, G., Qiao, Y., Li, P., & Lu, L. (2001). Music therapy in treatment of cancer patients. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 15(3), 179-181.

    Harper, E.I. (2001). Reducing Treatment-Related Anxiety in Cancer Patients: Comparison of Psychological Interventions. Dissertation: Southern Methodist University,

USA. anxiety and side effects associated with chemotherapy. Cancer Nursing, 19(4), 283-289.

    Sabo, C.E. & Michael, S.R. (1996). The influence of personal message with music on anxiety and side effects associated with chemotherapy. Cancer Nursing, 19(4), 283-289.

Listening to music reduces nausea and emesis for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Standley, J.M. (1992). Clinical applications of music and chemotherapy: The effects on nausea and emesis. Music Therapy Perspectives, 10, 27-35.

Participating in Music Therapy sessions increases comfort and motivates bone marrow transplant patients during treatment.

    Boldt, S. (1996). The effects of music therapy on motivation, psychological well- being, physical comfort, and exercise endurance of bone marrow transplant patients. Journal of Music Therapy, 33, 164-88.

Listening to music alleviates pain, fatigue, and anxiety of hospice cancer patients.

    Longfield, V. (1995). The effects of music therapy on pain and mood in hospice patients. Unpublished master’s thesis: Saint Louis University, USA.

Music Therapy serves to decrease behavioral distress among pediatric oncology patients during needle sticks.

    Malone, A. B. (1996). The effects of live music on the distress of pediatric patients receiving intravenous starts, venipunctures, injections, and heel sticks. Journal of Music Therapy, 33(1), 19-33.

Music provides an environment for engaging behaviors and decreasing distress behaviors for isolated pediatric oncology patients.

    Robb. S. L. (2000). The effect of therapeutic music interventions on the behavior of hospitalized children in isolation: developing a contextual support model of music therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 37(2), 118-46.


    Aldridge, D. (2003).  Music Therapy and Spirituality; A Transcendental Understanding of Suffering. Music Therapy Today (online), available at

    Bailey, L. M. (1983).  The Effects of Live Music versus Tape-Recorded Music on Hospitalized Cancer Patients.  Music Therapy, 3(1), 17-28.

    Groen, K. M.  (2007). Pain Assessment and Management in End of Life Care: A Survey of Assessment and Treatment Practices of Hospice Music Therapy and Nursing Professionals.  Journal of Music Therapy, 44(2), 90-112.

    Hilliard, R. E. (2003).  The Effects of Music Therapy on the Quality and Length of Life of People Diagnosed with Terminal Cancer.  Journal of Music Therapy, 40(2), 113-137.

    Hilliard, R. E. (2004).  A Post-Hoc Analysis of Music Therapy Services for Residents in Nursing Homes Receiving Hospice Care.  Journal of Music Therapy, 41(4), 266-281.

    Wlodarczyk, N.  (2007). The Effect of Music Therapy on the Spirituality of Persons in an In-Patient Hospice Unit as Measured by Self-Report.  Journal of Music Therapy, 44(2), 113-122.

    Zabin, A. H.  (2005). Lessons Learned from the Dying:  Stories from a Music Therapist.  Music Therapy Perspectives, 23(1), 70-75.